Over the Arctic Ocean the snow cover on the sea ice disappears and ponds of melt water start to form on the sea ice, further reducing the amount of sunlight the ice reflects and helping more ice melt. [9], During all seasons, the strongest average winds are found in the North-Atlantic seas, Baffin Bay, and Bering and Chukchi Seas, where cyclone activity is most common. The results highlighted that for around 1,900 years temperatures steadily dropped, caused by precession of earth's orbit that caused the planet to be slightly farther away from the sun during summer in the Northern Hemisphere. Stroeve, J., Holland, M.M., Meier, W., Scambos, T. and Serreze, M., 2007. Average temperatures in summer are above freezing over all regions except the central Arctic Basin, where sea ice survives through the summer, and interior Greenland[citation needed]. This ice acts to keep the surface temperature at freezing, just as it does over the Arctic Basin, so a location on a strait would likely have a summer climate more like the Arctic Basin, but with higher maximum temperatures because of winds off of the nearby warm islands. These regions are slightly warmer than the Archipelago because of their closer proximity to areas of thin, first-year sea ice cover or to open ocean in the Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea. The Arctic consists of ocean that is largely surrounded by land. Annual precipitation totals increase quickly from about 400 mm (16 in) in the northern to about 1,400 mm (55 in) in the southern part of the region. These forays into the Arctic did not venture far from the North American and Eurasian coasts, and were unsuccessful at finding a navigable route through either passage. Download variables like temperature, wind, clouds and precipitation as CSV for any place on Earth. On the Pacific side they average 6 to 9 m/s (22 to 32 km/h (14 to 20 mph) year round. Much of the winter variability in this region is due to clouds. [14], Climate models predict that the temperature increase in the Arctic over the next century will continue to be about twice the global average temperature increase. Serreze, Mark C. and Roger Graham Barry, 2005: ocean surrounding the North Pole was ice-free, summer sea ice transitions through spring thaw, summer melt ponds, and autumn freeze-up, "Representation of Mean Arctic Precipitation from NCEP–NCAR and ERA Reanalyses", 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0182:ROMAPF>2.0.CO;2, Aerosols May Drive a Significant Portion of Arctic Warming, "Studies of the Arctic Suggest a Dire Situation", Video on Climate Research in the Bering Sea, The Future of Arctic Climate and Global Impacts, How Climate Change Is Growing Forests in the Arctic, Arctic Ice Caps May Be More Prone to Melt; A new core pulled from Siberia reveals a 2.8-million-year history of warming and cooling, Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Effects of global warming on marine mammals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_of_the_Arctic&oldid=992016138, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from July 2018, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Arctic Basin includes the Arctic Ocean within the average minimum extent of sea ice, The entire island of Greenland, although its, The Arctic waters that are not sea ice in late summer, including. 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